16 Eylül 2014 Salı



Kipchak (恰克, 佩克), Kipsak, Qipchaq, Qifjaq, Xifjaq, Kimchag, Kimcha'ud, Kuchak, Kyfchak, Kimaks, Kibi, Kibir, Kukiji, Kujshe, Kuche, Küeshe (古耶舍),  Kyueshe, Tszueshe (古耶舍), Kushi, Kushu, Kuchuk, Cumans, Quman, Comani, Kumandy, Kun-ok, Kun, Kangli, Kengeres, Qangli, Seyanto, Sirs, Tele,  Tiele, Tsyn-cha, Qyn-cha, Qin-cha (钦察/欽察), Khipchakh (克普查克), Kipsikis (基普西基人), Falven, Falones, Val(e)we(n), Phalagi, Skythicon, Sakaliba, Khartesh, Рlаvсi, Рlаwсу, Рlаuсi, Рlаwci, Раlусz(оk), Polovetsy, Polovtsy, and other variations
There is an abundance of timelines with events, records and facts pertaining to the Türkic history. There are topic timelines in most of the history books, timeline encyclopedias and timeline dictionaries. The Türkic history, however, is there only incidentally, as a secondary-tertiary subject shown only at the time of the greatest impact on the central theme of the European world, or on a theme of a particular monograph. This history timeline lists the development of the Türkic societies, and includes the peoples and countries mutually impacted by the Türkic peoples. It gives the events in the Türkic world with the background of the neighboring societies.
 W Huns 5c ADKushan 6c ADAvaria 6c AD  W. Goktürk Kaganate 7 c. AD Khazaria
Kagan Domain 10 c. AD
Kipchak ca 1200 AD
300 BC
320 BCDate undefined. Aristov 1896, p. 279>: In Chinese annals, long before our era south of Altai mountains lived Huns, in the north lived people So. Then So split up into 4 tribes: Kuman or Kuban, Kyrgyz, Chu-kishi and Turks (or they consisted of these 4 tribes at the time of the oldest records )
318 BCFirst historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC
300 BC
Türkic language splits into 2 branches, Ogur (Eastern) and Oguz (Kipchak) (Western). Oguz 'z', 'y, i', (Oguz, yilan, Yaik) Ogur 'r', 'd, dj', (Ogur, djulan, Djaik)
201 BCV. Carlgren: Ethnonym Kypchak (Kyichak) in Chinese annals is Tsuishe (Kuishe, Kuche, Kyueshe, Kushi, Kushu, Kuchuk)
201 BCTsuishe are first listed among people conquered by Maotun in 201 BC, along with Geguns, ancestors of Enisei Kirgizes
77 ADPlinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder, 23–79 CE), Nat. Hist. 6.12  calls Derbent fortress ”Cumania”
300 ADGaogyuys are listed as branch of Huns in Chinese annals
Gaogyuys (Chinese ”High Coach”) => Tele/Chile/Tiele (Türk. ”Coach”) (both tele and coach derive from Turkic stems) =>15 tribes =>
 1 Uange (Uygurs)
 2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
 3 Kibi  (Kibir)
 4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
 5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
 6 Dolange (Telengits)
 7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)
 8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)( Uygurs)
 9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)
 10 Hun 11 Sygye (Uygurs)
 12 Husye
 13 Higye
 14 Adye(Eduz)
 15 Baysi (Barsil)
301Seyanto (Sir + Yanto) occupied steppes between Mongol Altay and E. Tianshan in 4-7c.
377Ammianus: Romans had their Saracen horses. This is 500 years before Saracen=Kumans=Kipchaks show up, 250 years before Muhammad, 600 years before Saracens become synonymous with Moslems. The channel for Saracens to supply horses for Roman army is unknown, if  they were not a part of Sary As Alans who served in Roman elite forces. Later application of ”Saracen” to Kipchaks may be of generalized character. Ptolemy's Geography refers to distinct from Arabs Σαρακηνός Sarakenoi people in north-western Arabian peninsula. Ascribing horse trading to Bedouins in 4th c. Arabia is problematic because knowledge of horse breeding and horsemanship was brought to Arabia and first to Bedouins only after conversion of Persians to Islam in 7th century AD, adding horses to their traditional camels
456Georgian records tell about Kypchaks in S. Caucasia in connection with the events of 456-510
516Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy, captures Tele (Teleut) lord Mivota, Tele escape to Ephtalites
534Anahuan with his horde attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy, defeats it. Tele's lord Ifu killed by his brother Yuegyuy, who continues resistance, is defeated, killed by Ifu's son Bidi
540Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy under Bidi is defeated and Gaogyuy state stops existing. In Chinese sources Chinese exoethnonym ”Gaogyuy” is replaced with Türkic endoethnonym ”Tele” (Türk. ”coach”)
552Kipchaks were members of Türkic Kaganate
552Kipchaks lived in Altai, valley of Chjelyan = Djilan = Snake, so Snake mountain and city Zmeinogorsk. Probably same as Boma of Dinlin. Belonged to Türkic Kaganate, lived in Alashan, mixed with Kangals, became Koman, or Polovets
568Sirs live in towns and have ports in Djurdjan, across Amu-Darya.
569Türks invade and conquer Sirs.
604Nominally Djungaria and basin of Tarim entered Western Khaganate. However Kibi on north slopes of East Tyan-Shan and Seyanto on So. Slopes of Altain-Nuru crest fought western Türks for 2 years (605-606) and gained freedom.
606Leader of Seyantos Ishibo subordinated to Gelen but retained control over his tribe. state was likely a tribal union
609Troops of Empire Suy attack Tele and Western Khaganate
605-610 AD
Founder - Yagmurchyn Baga-Kagan and Yshbara Yetir Kagan. Joint effort by Seyanto and Kibi tribes to secede from Western Türkic Kaganate.
Area - North of Tarim Basin
619Both Tele leaders, Kibi Mokhe-Khan and Seyanto's Inan, subordinate to Tung Djabgu Khan = Djabgu of Shenuy. Djungaria returned to Western Khaganate.
626Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).
627Seyanto tribe and Djungaria left Western Khaganate and joined Eastern Khaganate’s Kat Il Khan
627Seyanto and Uygurs, both Tele tribes, help each other in Khaganate. Seyanto's Inan and Uygur's Pusa support each other
628Seyanto tribe with 70K yurts gains independence.
631 - 646 A.D
Founder - Ynan-erkin, title Jenchu-Bilge-Kagan (Pearly Wise Kagan)
Area - all lands and tribes of Eastern Türkic Kaganate. Parts of Kaganate territory are occupied by Tang (Tarim and Middle Asia), parts recognize nominal suzerainty of Tang (Uigurs) (two complementary maps are shown until Seyanto Kaganate map becomes available)

630Tardu Tong Yabgu of Western Khaganate (619-630), per Chinese chronicle Tanshu, subjugated Toleses between rivers Orkhon and Tola and Aral Lake, to Iranians, and advanced to Khandagar in south. His army has hundreds of thousands good bow-shooters
630Qarluqs rebel, Tung Yabgu (23) dies, W. Khaganate split, SW and NE. SW run by Nushibis, under Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) (631-631), installed by Nishu Khan Shad (32), son of Baga Shad (24). NE run by Tele (Dulu), under Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) (630-631)
630Türks of Ordos become Kok Türks (Blue Türks), different from their north neighbors-Tele
630Seyanto pursue Türk’s Chebi Khan who finds refuge in Altai valley with 30K army.
631Seyanto tribe keeps independence.
631Seyanto under China = 70K wagons
631Uygur leader Tumidu, heir of Pusa, defeated Seyantos and seized their ranges. Emperor Taitszun sent an embassy to Seyanto leader Inan and recognized him as Khan, as a counterweight to Uygurs. Uygurs subordinated and recognized new Khan.
631Seyanto state organized as Türk's. Khan's sons are Shads, leading tolos (North) and tardush (South). Army numbered 200K lances, smaller than was 1,000K of Türks' Shibir Khan
631Seyanto state successfully controlled all Türkic leaders except for Ordos Türks under Chinese protection. Some Ordos Türks move north into Seyanto state.
631New Seyanto state spread from Altai to Khingan and from Gobi desert to Baikal.
632Seyanto gave a blow from behind. Ashina Chuni, loyal to traditions of Eastern Kaganate, raised his army against Seyanto. He had 50K army without success.
632Kipchaks are not in 10 arrows of Western Kaganate
634Seyanto tribe with 70K wagons keeps independence
635Tribes that did not receive autonomy were Karluks, Yagma (YanNyan), Kipchaks, Basmals, and Huns (Dulu) tribes Chue, Chumi and Shato.
635Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu reorganizes W. Khaganate into 10-arrow Türks, of 5 Nushibi and 5 Tele (Dulu) tribal leaders, recognizing them as Shads (blood prince).
636NE of Western Khaganate controlled by Tele Khan Tong Shad Yabgu, who attempts to unite W. and E. Khaganates
639Seyanto ally with Gaochan in defense of Gaochan from Empire Tan aggression. Gaochan is attacked and occupied
Tsujshe (Kirchaks) is mentioned in Chinese annals desribing Dulu Khan, who in 641 conquered tribes other than Dulu or Nushibi, among them Tsujshe and Gegu, ie Kipchaks and Enisei Kirgizes. Per Chinese annals, Kipchaks and Enisei Kirgizes were neighbors for 800 years in Upper Ob and Western Sayans
641Türks in service of Tan Empire are moved to north bank of Khuankhe and serve as a barrier against Seyanto
641Seyanto Khan Inan organized expedition against restored Türkic vassal Khaganate on north bank of Khuankhe. Seyanto army is demolished 80%.
641Kipchaks have 100K people, 40K army, 90 K horses
641Kipchak on Altai subordinated to Khan Yukuk Yabgu
645Seyanto Khan Inan died
646Remains of Seyanto Horde loses to Empire Tan army and is dispersed forever. Uygurs fought Seyanto with Empire Tan and become loyal subjects and fight in all wars for Empire
646Seyanto Khanaate was destroyed by Empire and their allies Uygurs, people were mercilessly wiped out. Remains of Seyanto dispersed by slopes of Beyshan, and joined Türks
631 - 646 A.D
Founder - Ynan-erkin, title Jenchu-Bilge-Kagan (Pearly Wise Kagan)
Area - all lands and tribes of Eastern Türkic Kaganate. Parts of Kaganate territory are occupied by Tang (Tarim and Middle Asia), parts recognize nominal suzerainty of Tang (Uigurs) (two complementary maps are shown until Seyanto Kaganate map becomes available)

649Türkic Chebi Khan horde is resettled in East Khaganate vacated by Seyanto
650Kipchaks move to Upper Irtysh and E. Kazakhstan steppes under pressure from China and Uygurs
650Kypchaks invaded Albania (which Albania?) in the 7th century (in the context, Caucasian Albania)
667150K Kumans, Turkmens, Kök-Oguses and Kyrgises confederated with Khazars cross Idel. Shambat and Asparukh battle Khazars, loose and flee to Bashtu, present Kiev.
679Kipchaks restored Türkic Kaganate, second component = Sirs, descendants of Seyanto, became 'Kok Türk' = blue Türks Known as Kipchaks from that time
692Kipchaks mixed with Kangar (Besenyos, Russian 'Pecheneg') between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Deshtikipchak
718Created Orkhon Inscriptions on Tonyukuk slella, describing events and providing Türkic perspective. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters
732Orkhon Inscriptions on Kul Tegin stella with a large and small inscriptions. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters
Kipchak name first shows on Selenga Stella, Kipchak with Türkuts are ruling Kök Türk tribes, and allied against Uigurs.
755Created Orkhon Inscription on Mogilyan Bilge Khan slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters
770Oguzes came to Transoxania in 770's
Founder -
Area -
Script - Türkic Alphabet Talas type
Coins - 
961After Dukak death, Yabgu appoints his son Seljuk Syu-Bashi, head of army. Seljuk evacuates his tribe to Sugura, near Jend (Hojdent), bordering with Moslem countries. Relocation may be caused by Kipchak victory over Oguz State or shortage of pastures
9728 Besenyo tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Russian prince Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his scull. Besenyos continuous fights with Khazars, Byzantines and Rus
1010Kipchaks are pressed by Kumosi - Kimaks and then by Kidanes and move west. Kipchaks have three main groups: the main group and whole people are Kipchaks, western [European] branch is usually recorded as Cumans, and eastern [Asiatic] branch is known as Kangli (Kengeress)
1020Kipchaks occupy Middle and Lower Donets basin, lower Don and Azov steppes. Earliest Kipchak stone monuments w. of Itil in honor of diseased are located here
1029Kipchaks control steppes from Itil to Irtysh
1045Byzantines call Besenyos and Kumans ”Skythicon”
1054Russian chronicles record appearance of Ghuz people, pushed by Kipchaks- a branch of Kimaks of middle Irtysh and of Ob.
1055Russians claim that majority of Kipchak tribes under the leadership of Khan Blush crossed Itil in pursuit of Oguzes and occupy E. European steppes.
1055Ipatian Chronicle reports first arrival of Kipchaks at border of Pereyaslav principality
1060Kipchaks replace Besenyos (Pechenegs) from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppes are important component of Deshti-Kipchak.
1061First Kipchak Cumans attack of Rus under leadership of Khan Sokal
1065600K Oguzes crossed Danube, devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bolgars, ruled at that time from Byzantium, annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipchaks.
1065600K Oghuzes crossed Danube and devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bolgars annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipchaks.
1065Steppes N. of Lake Balkhash inhabited by three Türkic peoples: Oguz (Oghuz, Ghuz, Torks, Ouzoi, Uzes, Türkmen), Kimaks/Kipchak of middle Yenisey of Ob, and Kirgiz. group distinguished from other Türkic people that they had Y mutated to J (DJ).
1068Kipchaks defeat three joint Rus Knyazes Izyaslav, Svyatoslav, and Vsevolod on Al'ta/L'to River
1078Svyatoslav pretender-son Oleg brought Kipchak army to Rus
1090The reign of Kipchak Khan Bonyak (1090-1167)
1091Kipchaks under Tugorkhan (?-1096) (Grousset's Togortak) and Bonyak (Grousset's Maniak) are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crushed Besenyo army at Mount Lebunion
1095Kiev Grand Knyaz Vladimir Monomah signs peace treaty with Kipchaks, exchange and adopt sons (Türk. tali, or amanaty), then treacherously slaughter Khans Kitan and Itlar, raid and rob Kipchak settlements, causing retributions
1099Khan Bonyak Cumans defeat Hungarian army of King Coloman Beauclerc at Przemysl
1100Kipchaks are subdivided into hordes: Dniepr, Don, Lower Itil (Kipchak-Saksin), Eastern (Kipchak)
1103Rus Dolob Congress to unite Rus forces to crush Cumans
1103W. Kipchaks are invaded and defeated on river Suten (Molochnaya) by Vladimir Monomakh and Svyatopolk Izyaslavich of Kiev. 20 Kipchak princes died. Kipchaks retreat from Bug
1105Khan Bonyak Cumans retaliate attacking Zarub
1109Don Kipchaks are invaded and defeated by Rus Khyazes
1110Kipchaks stone monuments spread in Dniepr basin, Crimea, Azov, Don, Itil, N Caucasus
1111Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Khyazes.
1116Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Khyazes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken.
1116(1116-1236) End of Russo-Kipchak wars. Kipchaks ally with Rus Principalities and join in in Rus intercine wars. In 120 years Kipchaks participate in 16 Russo-Russo wars, with only 6 Russo-Kipchak invasions and 6 Kipchak-Russo invasions
1117Kipchaks under Khan Otrok retreat to N Caucasus steppes. Kipchak Khan Syrchan remains in Don Steppes. Kipchaks under Khan Otrok on way to N Caucasus destroy Sarkel. Its inhabitants with Besenyos and Oguz Türks migrate to Rus principalities
1117Kipchak Khan Bonyak and Rus Knyazes Vsevolod of Kiev and Andrey of Pereyaslavl sign peace treaty near Malutin
1118Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder and participates in war with Seljuks. A number of Kipchaks settle in Georgia
1120Rus Knyaz Yuri Dolgoruky defeats Bulgars under pretext that they poisoned his father-in-law, Kipchak Khan Aepak
1122Rus defeats Berendeys, Oguses and Cumans. Cumans leave
1122Kipchak Khan Bonyak defeats Besenyos at Battle of Eski Zagra. Cumans subsequently occupy their lands
11301130-1150 Kipchaks participate in intercene wars of Rus principalities.
1146Foundation of Karakalpak (Black Caps - Russ. Chernii Klobuki) Union (comprised of remnants of defeated Türkic peoples), dependent on and largely loyal to Rus. First time Rus annals mention Wild Kipchaks (Russ. ”Wild Polovetsy”) and Brodnicks
1152Kipchak lands are defined in Ipatievsk Chronicle and Chronicle of Igor. Itil, N Black Sea, Sula, Crimea (Suroj and Korsun (Kerch)), Tmutarakan (NW Fore-Caucusus)
1167Kipchak Khan Bonyak (1090-1167) dies, Khan ? becomes Kipchak Khan(1167-1172)
1170Rus Knyazes under the leadership of Mstislav Izyaslavich raid Dnestr Kipchaks
1171Besenyos lose control of Moldova to Cumans (1171-1241)
1172Kipchak Khan ? (1167-1172) dies, Khan Konchak becomes Khan (1172-1201)
1172Kipchak Khan Konchak and the Rus Knyazes Rostislav and Gleb sign peace treaty near Pesochna. Bulgars repel attack of Mstislav, son of Andrey Bogolyubsky
1174Kipchak Khans Konchak and Kobyak fail in raid on territory of Pereiaslavl Knyaz Igor
1175Kipchaks consolidate into 2 confederated hordes, Dniepr and Don. Al Mansuri and An Nuvayri mention Burjogly and Toksoba confederations.
1179First successful raid of Kipchak Khan Konchak to Pesulye
1180Kipchaks aid Knyaz Igor and Olgovichi against Knyaz David in Smolensk and Ryurik. After the defeat of Igor, they flee with his troops. The battle took place near Chertoriye River
1184Dniepr Kipchaks are again attacked and defeated near Ivan-Voyn, and Kievan Grand Knyaz Svyatoslav (not Igor) captures and kills Khan Kobyak. Kobyak is from line Toglyy/Izay/Osoluk/Kobyak (in Russ. sources patrimonic name Karepyevich, from Karep)
1184Don Kipchak Khan Konchak raids Russ and is defeated. Army of Knyaz Vsevolod devastates some Bulgar areas
1185A number of Kipchaks, in 10'sK, settle in Georgia in times of George III (1152-1184) and Quinn Tamara (1184-1214).
1185(March) Russ Knyazes Ryurik and Svyatoslav defeat Kipchaks on Khorol River. Month later Igor launches his disastrous campaign against Kipchaks. Khan Konchak and Gzak retaliate successfully in Pereiaslavl region
11851185-1187 Cuman-descended Bulgarian ”boyars” Peter and Asen revolt against Byzantine rule, with Bulgar, Wallachian and Cuman troops. Foundation of second Danube Bulgar state
1187Great March of Rus knyazes against Dnestr Kipchaks, the final destination is ”Blue Wood”
1193Rus Knyazes - co-governors Svyatoslav and Rurik fail to arrange peace treaty with (Kipchak vassals?) Lukomors and Bureviches.
11951195- Kipchaks participate in intercine wars of Rus principalities.
1202Rus Knyaz Rurik with Kipchak allies defeats Galitsky princedom
1202Kipchak Khan Kotyan's reign (1202-1240) over territories in N. Pontic and Hungary
1203Kipchak Cumans capture Kiev
1206Death of Delhi Sultan Muhammad Guri. Kipchak viceroy gulam Kutb ad-Din Aibek (1206-1210) becomes first Sultam of new dynasty
1209Novgorod Knyaz Mstislav allied with Cuman Khan Kotyan, recaptures Galich from Magyars
1219Gengiz Khan grants Muyten Bey yarlik for Bashkir? Kipchak? Ulus from Yaik and Agizel (Belaya), tributary of Kama, to Irtish
1220Combined Russo-Kipchak forces of Knyaz George II of Vladimir raids Itil Bolgars, capture Oshel and other cities along Kama. Bilyar city was saved by paying rich tribute
1221King George IV's Georgian Royal Guards Cuman cavalry defeated by Mongols
1221Dominicans send missionaries to Cumans
1222Khan Kotyan Cumans, Bulgars, Khazars and Alans in first fight with Mongol-Tatars, accept promise not to be harmed as speakers of Tatar Kipchak dialect, withdraw, but are attacked and defeated. Alanian capital Magas (Meget) is seized
1223War councel in Kiev: Kipchak Khan Kotyak, Galician Knyaz Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy (Brave), Kiev Knyaz Mstislav Romanovich, Chernigov Knyaz Mstislav Svyatoslavich, Volyn Knyaz Daniil, Kursk Knyaz Oleg, Smolensk Knyaz Vladimir, former Novgorod Knyaz Vsevolod
1223Mongol-Tatars defeated important Khan Kotyan's Russo-Kipchak force on May 31, 1223, at battle of Kalka
122380K Russo-Kipchak force was defeated by 20K 3 tumen force of Subetai on June 16, 1223, at battle of Kalka
1223Itil Bolgar Khan Gabdulla Chelbir collects 24K army, of 5K kursybays, 3K militia of Dair Tetush, 6K kazanchies, 10K Bashkorts. Staged at Kermek, NW of Mardan-Sember (present Simbirsk), on left bank of Itil. Subetai had 20K Tataro-Mongols, and 50K Türkmen and Kumans. Severe defeat of trapped Mongol army
Founder -
Area -
Script - Türkic Alphabet Talas type
Coins - 
1227Juchi dies, Batu becomes Ulus Juchi (Kipchak) Khan (1227-1255)
1227Cuman Khan west of the Dneiper Bortz/Bortch (Türk. ”debt”) and 15,000 of his people baptized as Catholics in Moldavia and swear allegiance to Hungary
1228First bishopric of Cumania, with seat at Milkov in Moldavia, established in Transylvania and King King Béla IV of Hungary assumed title “king of Cumania”
1235Eastern Desht-I Kipchak from Altai to Idel are included in Tataro-Mongol Empire
1237Batu Khan becomes ruler of Kipchak Kaganate (Ak Urdu) (Golden Horde).
1237Invasion of Asses and Kipchaks in N.W. Caspian and N. Caucasus. Leading Kipchak warrior Bachman killed, Khan Kotyan retreat beyond Tanais. Batu starts encircling maneuver going through Burtases, Erzya Moksha, and Rus
1239King Béla IV of Hungary granted asylum to Cumans and their prince Kotyan (BE ”Kuthen”), who had earlier unsuccessfully tried organize Rus resistance to Mongols. Kotyan agreed to convert his people to Catholicism, and be loyal to Hungary
1240Batu Khan controls Kipchak, Bolgar, Rus Principalities
1240Kuthen, considered a dangerous alien, is murdered; Cumans left Hungary but resettled there by Béla IV in 1245
1241Cumans lose control of Moldova to Mongols (1241-1286)
1241Cumans exacted revenge upon Hungarians by deserting them in their greatest time of need. They fled to Balkans, ravaging as they went
1249Establishment of Kipchak Türkic Mamluk dynasty in Egypt
1250Kipchaks spoke a Türkic language whose most important surviving record is Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Latin, and Persian, compiled by Christian missionaries
1250Presence in Egypt of Kipchak-speaking Mamluks stimulated compilation of Kipchak-Arabic dictionaries and grammars written in Egypt and Syria
1250Béla IV's son, future Stephen V, married Cuman princess, and, under rule of their son (Ladislas IV [László]; 1272–90), Cuman influence in Hungarian affairs was great
1250Cumans did not completely assimilated into Hungarian society for centuries
1255Batu dies (1227-1255). Sartaq the Christian becomes Kipchak Khan (1255-1257), then Ulagchi the Child (1257-1257)
1257Ulagchi the Child dies (1257-1257), Berke the Moslem becomes Kipchak Khan (1257-1266)
1261First Orthodox bishopric established in Kipchak Kaganate Sarai as early as 1261 (D.Sinor, Mongols in the West)
1262First war between Kipchak Kaganate and Il Khans.
1263Kipchak Khanaate (Ak Urdu) carried on an extensive trade with Mediterranean peoples, particularly their allies in Mamluk Egypt and Genoese.
1266Berke Moslem dies (1257-1266), Mangu Timur becomes Kipchak Khan (1266-1280)
1279Kipchak (Cuman) George Terter I installed in Bulgaria (1280-1292)
1280Mangu Timur dies, Tode Mangu the Moslem becomes Kipchak Khan (1280-1287)
1287Tode Mangu Moslem dies, Tole Buqa becomes Kipchak Khan (1287-1290)
1290Tole Buqa dies, Toqtagha becomes Kipchak Khan (1290-1312)
1298Hungarian-Cuman force fights in Battle of Gollheim with army of Albrecht I of Habsburg
1300Kipchaks settle in E. of Itil and in S. Urals
1300Kipchaks settled from Itil to Lower Ilek rivers left modest earthen kurgans with rectangular burials facing East, with a hide or a mummy of harnessed and saddled horse
1300Kipchaks settled E. of Lower Ilek river left stone kurgans with rectangular burials facing East, with a hide or a mummy of harnessed and saddled horse. Both groups have same ritual: men are equipped with birch lube quivers with cut arrows, knives and flints. Women  are buried with bronze or silver pendants, ear rings, signet rings, scissors, bronze mirrors and elements of head dress (bokki in a shape of a birch lube tube)
1328Pope John XXII instructs Hungarian bishops not to collect tithes from Cumans
1333Casimir the Great (Kazimierz Wielki) (1333-1370) expands Poland on the border of Kipchak khanate into a major Central-European power, increasing her territory 2.5 times, bringing it's size up to 270,000 sq.kms.
1340Tini Beg dies, Jani Beg I becomes Kipchak Khan (1341-1356)
1348Pope Coloman VI charges Minorite friars to convert Cumans
1356Jani Beg I dies, Berdi Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1356-1359 opposed by)
1357Death of Jani Beg, last member of House of Juchi to rule over Kipchak Kaganate
1359Berdi Beg dies, Qulpa becomes Kipchak Khan (1359-1360 and)
1360Nauruz Beg dies, Hizr (of Ak Urdu - White Horde) becomes Kipchak Khan (1360-1361)
1360Qulpa dies, Nauruz Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1360)
1361Hizr (of Ak Urdu - White Horde) dies, Temur Hoja (of Ak Urdu) becomes Kipchak Khan (1361-1362)
1362Temur Hoja (Ak Urdu) dies, Abdullah becomes Kipchak Khan (1362 d1370)
1369Abdullah dies, Jani Beg II becomes Kipchak Khan (1369-1370)
1370Jani Beg II dies, Mohammed Buluq-Khan becomes Kipchak Khan (1370 d)
1370Mohammed Buluq-Khan dies, Tulun Beg-Khanum (fem) (Ak Urdu) becomes Kipchak Khan (1370-1373)
1373Tulun Beg-Khanum (fem) (Ak Urdu) dies, Ai Beg (Ak Urdu) becomes Kipchak Khan (1373 d 1376)
1373Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow repulsed Kipchak punitive invasion
1375Ai Beg (Ak Urdu) dies, Hajji Cherkes (in Sarai) becomes Kipchak Khan (1375-1376)
1376Hajji Cherkes (in Sarai) dies, Urus-Khan becomes Kipchak Khan (1376-1378)
1377Khan of Ak Urdu Tokhtamysh assumes control of Kipchak Kaganate
1378Urus-Khan dies, Arab Shaykh (restored)(in Sarai) becomes Kipchak Khan (1378-1379)
1379Arab Shaykh (restored)(in Sarai) dies, rebellious Mamai claims Kipchak Khan throne (1379-1380)
1380Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow and Rus princes, as vassals of Tokhtamish, fight and win a signal victory over Kipchak Horde under pretender general Mamai at Battle of Kulikovo in 1380
1380Tokhtamish, son of a minor Tatar prince, won fight with Mamai and ascended throne of Kipchak Khaganate - Ak Urdu. Mamai dies, Tokhtamish becomes Kipchak Khan (1380-1397)
1395Timurlan defeats Tokhtamysh. Türkish Emir Edigu takes over control of Kipchak Kaganate.
1398Tokhtamish dies, Temur Qutlugh becomes Kipchak Khan (1398-1400)
1400Temur Qutlugh dies, Shadi Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1400-1407)
1407Shadi Beg dies, Pulad becomes Kipchak Khan (1407-1412)
1412Pulad dies, Jalal Al-Din becomes Kipchak Khan (1412-1413)
1413Jalal Al-Din dies, Karim Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1413-1414)
1414Karim Berdi dies, Kebek becomes Kipchak Khan (1414-1417)
1417Kebek dies, Jabbar Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1417-1419)
1419Jabbar Berdi dies, Ulugh Mehmed becomes Kipchak Khan (1419-1420 d 1434)
1419Death of Edigu. Beginning of civil war in Kipchak Kaganate
1420Ulugh Mehmed dies, Devlat Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1420-1421)
1421Devlat Berdi dies, Baraq becomes Kipchak Khan (1421-1428)
1423Crimean Khaganate separates from Kipchak Khaganate under Khan Mengli Girei
1423Baraq dies,Kuchuk Mehmed becomes Kipchak Khan (1423(36?)-1459)
1428Kuchuk Mehmed dies, Ulugh Mehmed (restored) becomes Kipchak Khan (1428-1434)
1430Kazan Khanate separates from Kipchak Khaganate.
1432Kipchak Khan Ulugh Mehmed's envoy enthroned Vasili II on throne of Moscow instead of in Vladimir. This is last time that Tatar envoy participated in coronation of Grand Prince of Rus
1434Ulugh Mehmed (restored) dies, Sayyid Ahmad I becomes Kipchak Khan (1434-1436)
1459Sayyid Ahmad I dies, Mahmud becomes Kipchak Khan (1459-1466)
1466Mahmud dies, Ahmad becomes Kipchak Khan (1466-1481)
1470Struck last bilingual Kipchak-Rus coins
1481Ahmad dies, Sayyid Ahmad II becomes Kipchak Khan (1481-1502)
1502Destruction of Kipchak Kaganate capital Sarai.

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