28 Ağustos 2009 Cuma


Kipchaks, Qipchaq, Qifjaq, Xifjaq, Kimchag, Kimcha'ud, Kuchak, Kyfchak, Kimaks, Kibi, Kukiji, Kujshe, Kuche, Kyueshe, Kushi, Kushu, Kuchuk, Cumans, Quman, Comani, Kumandy, Kun-ok, Kun, Kangli, Kengeres, Qangli, Seyanto, Sirs, Tele, Tsyn-cha, Falven, Falones, Val(e)we(n), Phalagi, Skythicon, Sakaliba, Khartesh, Рlаvсi, Рlаwсу, Рlаuсi, Рlаwci, Раlусz(оk), Polovetsy, Polovtsy, and other variations

W Huns 5c AD Kushan 6c AD Avaria 6c AD W. Goktürk Kaganate 7 c. AD Khazaria
Kagan Domain 10 c. AD Kipchak ca 1200 AD

Time Events
300 BC Türkic language splits into 2 branches, Oguz (Eastern) and Ogur (Kipchak) (Western). Oguz 'z', 'y, i', (Oguz, yilan, Yaik) Ogur 'r', 'd, dj', (Ogur, djulan, Djaik)

201 BC V. Carlgren: Ethnonym Kypchak (Kyjchak) in Chinese annals is Tsujshe (Kujshe, Kuche, Kyueshe, Kushi, Kushu, Kuchuk)
201 BC Tsujshe are first listed among people conquered by Maotun in 201 BC, along with Geguns, ancestors of Enisei Kirgizes
77 AD Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder, 23–79 CE), Nat. Hist. 6.12 calls Derbent fortress "Cumania"
300 AD Gaogyuys are listed as branch of Huns in Chinese annals

300 Genealogy:

Gaogyuys (Chinese "High Coach")=Tele (Türk. "Coach" =15 tribes =

1 Uange (Uygurs)

2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)

3 Kibi

4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)

5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)

6 Dolange (Telengits)

7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)

8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)( Uygurs)

9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)

10 Hun 11 Sygye (Uygurs)

12 Husye

13 Higye

14 Adye(Eduz)

15 Baysi (Barsil)

301 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto) occupied steppes between Mongol Altay and E. Tianshan in 4-7c.

516 Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy, captures Tele (Teleut) lord Mivota, Tele escape to Ephtalites

534 Anahuan with his horde attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy, defeats it. Tele's lord Ifu killed by his brother Yuegyuy, who continues resistance, is defeated, killed by Ifu's son Bidi

540 Tele's kingdom Gaogyuy under Bidi is defeated and Gaogyuy state stops existing. In Chinese sources Chinese exoethnonym "Gaogyuy" is replaced with Türkic endoethnonym "Tele" (Türk. "coach")

552 Kipchaks were members of Türkic Kaganate

552 Kipchaks lived in Altai, valley of Chjelyan = Djilan = Snake, so Snake mountain and city Zmeinogorsk. Probably same as Boma of Dinlin. Belonged to Türkic Kaganate, lived in Alashan, mixed with Kangals, became Koman, or Polovets

568 Sirs live in towns and have ports in Djurdjan, across Amu-Darya.

569 Türks invade and conquer Sirs.

604 Nominally Djungaria and basin of Tarim entered Western Khaganate. However Kibi on north slopes of East Tyan-Shan and Seyanto on So. Slopes of Altain-Nuru crest fought western Türks for 2 years (605-606) and gained freedom.

606 Leader of Seyantos Ishibo subordinated to Gelen but retained control over his tribe. state was likely a tribal union

609 Troops of Empire Suy attack Tele and Western Khaganate

619 Both Tele leaders, Kibi Mokhe-Khan and Seyanto's Inan, subordinate to Tung Djabgu Khan = Djabgu of Shenuy. Djungaria returned to Western Khaganate.

626 Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate Uturgur (Onogur?) Bolgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).

627 Seyanto tribe and Djungaria left Western Khaganate and joined Eastern Khaganate’s Kat Il Khan

627 Seyanto and Uygurs, both Tele tribes, help each other in Khaganate. Seyanto's Inan and Uygur's Pusa support each other

628 Seyanto tribe with 70K yurts gains independence.

630 Tardu Tong Yabgu of Western Khaganate (619-630), per Chinese chronicle Tanshu, subjugated Toleses between rivers Orkhon and Tola and Aral Lake, to Iranians, and advanced to Khandagar in south. His army has hundreds of thousands good bow-shooters

630 Qarluqs rebel, Tung Yabgu (23) dies, W. Khaganate split, SW and NE. SW run by Nushibis, under Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) (631-631), installed by Nishu Khan Shad (32), son of Baga Shad (24). NE run by Tele (Dulu), under Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) (630-631)

630 Türks of Ordos become Kok Türks (Blue Türks), different from their north neighbors-Tele

630 Seyanto pursue Türk’s Chebi Khan who finds refuge in Altai valley with 30K army.

631 Seyanto tribe keeps independence.

631 Seyanto under China = 70K wagons

631 Uygur leader Tumidu, heir of Pusa, defeated Seyantos and seized their ranges. Emperor Taitszun sent an embassy to Seyanto leader Inan and recognized him as Khan, as a counterweight to Uygurs. Uygurs subordinated and recognized new Khan.

631 Seyanto state organized as Türk's. Khan's sons are Shads, leading tolos (North) and tardush (South). Army numbered 200K lances, smaller than was 1,000K of Türks' Shibir Khan

631 Seyanto state successfully controlled all Türkic leaders except for Ordos Türks under Chinese protection. Some Ordos Türks move north into Seyanto state.

631 New Seyanto state spread from Altai to Khingan and from Gobi desert to Baikal.

632 Seyanto gave a blow from behind. Ashina Chuni, loyal to traditions of Eastern Kaganate, raised his army against Seyanto. He had 50K army without success.

632 Kipchaks are not in 10 arrows of Western Kaganate

634 Seyanto tribe with 70K wagons keeps independence

635 Tribes that did not receive autonomy were Karluks, Yagma (YanNyan), Kipchaks, Basmals, and Huns (Dulu) tribes Chue, Chumi and Shato.

635 Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu reorganizes W. Khaganate into 10-arrow Türks, of 5 Nushibi and 5 Tele (Dulu) tribal leaders, recognizing them as Shads (blood prince).

636 NE of Western Khaganate controlled by Tele Khan Tong Shad Yabgu, who attempts to unite W. and E. Khaganates

639 Seyanto ally with Gaochan in defense of Gaochan from Empire Tan aggression. Gaochan is attacked and occupied

Tsujshe (Kirchaks) is mentioned in Chinese annals desribing Dulu Khan, who in 641 conquered tribes other than Dulu or Nushibi, among them Tsujshe and Gegu, ie Kipchaks and Enisei Kirgizes. Per Chinese annals, Kipchaks and Enisei Kirgizes were neighbors for 800 years in Upper Ob and Western Sayans
641 Türks in service of Tan Empire are moved to north bank of Khuankhe and serve as a barrier against Seyanto

641 Seyanto Khan Inan organized expedition against restored Türkic vassal Khaganate on north bank of Khuankhe. Seyanto army is demolished 80%.

641 Kipchaks have 100K people, 40K army, 90 K horses

641 Kipchak on Altai subordinated to Khan Yukuk Yabgu

645 Seyanto Khan Inan died

646 Remains of Seyanto Horde loses to Empire Tan army and is dispersed forever. Uygurs fought Seyanto with Empire Tan and become loyal subjects and fight in all wars for Empire

646 Seyanto Khanaate was destroyed by Empire and their allies Uygurs, people were mercilessly wiped out. Remains of Seyanto dispersed by slopes of Beyshan, and joined Türks

649 Türkic Chebi Khan horde is resettled in East Khaganate vacated by Seyanto

650 Kipchaks move to Upper Irtysh and E. Kazakhstan steppes under pressure from China and Uygurs

667 150K Kumans, Türkmens, Kök-Oguses and Kyrgises confederated with Khazars cross Idel. Shambat and Asparukh battle Khazars, loose and flee to Bashtu, present Kiev.

679 Kipchaks restored Türkic Kaganate, second component = Sirs, descendants of Seyanto, became 'Kok Türk' = blue Türks Known as Kipchaks from that time

692 Kipchaks mixed with Kangar (Besenyos, Russian 'Pecheneg') between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Deshtikipchak

718 Created Orkhon Inscriptions on Tonyukuk slella, describing events and providing Türkic perspective. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters

732 Orkhon Inscriptions on Kul Tegin stella with a large and small inscriptions. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters

Kipchak name first shows on Selenga Stella, Kipchak with Türkuts are ruling Kök Türk tribes, and allied against Uigurs.
755 Created Orkhon Inscription on Mogilyan Bilge Khan slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters



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Script - Türkic Alphabet Talas type

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961 After Dukak death, Yabgu appoints his son Seljuk Syu-Bashi, head of army. Seljuk evacuates his tribe to Sugura, near Jend (Hojdent), bordering with Moslem countries. Relocation may be caused by Kipchak victory over Oguz State or shortage of pastures

972 8 Besenyo tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Russian prince Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his scull. Besenyos continuous fights with Khazars, Byzantines and Rus

1010 Kipchaks are pressed by Kumosi- Kimaks and then by Kidanes and move west. Kipchaks have three main groups: the main group and whole people are Kipchaks, western [European] branch is usually recorded as Cumans, and eastern [Asiatic] branch is known as Kangli (Kengeress)

1020 Kipchaks occupy Middle and Lower Donets basin, lower Don and Azov steppes. Earliest Kipchak stone monuments w. of Itil in honor of diseased are located here

1029 Kipchaks control steppes from Itil to Irtysh

1045 Byzantines call Besenyos and Kumans "Skythicon"

1054 Russian chronicles record appearance of Ghuz people, pushed by Kipchaks- a branch of Kimaks of middle Irtysh and of Ob.

1055 Russians claim that majority of Kipchak tribes under the leadership of Khan Blush crossed Itil in pursuit of Oguzes and occupy E. European steppes.

1055 Ipatian Chronicle reports first arrival of Kipchaks at border of Pereyaslav principality

1060 Kipchaks replace Besenyos (Pechenegs) from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppes are important component of Deshti-Kipchak.

1061 First Kipchak Cumans attack of Rus under leadership of Khan Sokal

1065 600K Oguzes crossed Danube, devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bolgars, ruled at that time from Byzantium, annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipchaks.

1065 600K Oghuzes crossed Danube and devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bolgars annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipchaks.

1065 Steppes N. of Lake Balkhash inhabited by three Türkic peoples: Oguz (Oghuz, Ghuz, Torks, Ouzoi, Uzes, Türkmen), Kimaks/Kipchak of middle Yenisey of Ob, and Kirgiz. group distinguished from other Türkic people that they had Y mutated to J (DJ).

1068 Kipchaks defeat three joint Rus Knyazes Izyaslav, Svyatoslav, and Vsevolod on Al'ta/L'to River

1078 Svyatoslav pretender-son Oleg brought Kipchak army to Rus

1090 The reign of Kipchak Khan Bonyak (1090-1167)

1091 Kipchaks under Tugorkhan (?-1096) (Grousset's Togortak) and Bonyak (Grousset's Maniak) are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crushed Besenyo army at Mount Lebunion

1095 Kiev Grand Knyaz Vladimir Monomah signs peace treaty with Kipchaks, exchange and adopt sons (Türk. tali, or amanaty), then treacherously slaughter Khans Kitan and Itlar, raid and rob Kipchak settlements, causing retributions

1099 Khan Bonyak Cumans defeat Hungarian army of King Coloman Beauclerc at Przemysl

1100 Kipchaks are subdivided into hordes: Dniepr, Don, Lower Itil (Kipchak-Saksin), Eastern (Kipchak)

1103 Rus Dolob Congress to unite Rus forces to crush Cumans

1103 W. Kipchaks are invaded and defeated on river Suten (Molochnaya) by Vladimir Monomakh and Svyatopolk Izyaslavich of Kiev. 20 Kipchak princes died. Kipchaks retreat from Bug

1105 Khan Bonyak Cumans retaliate attacking Zarub

1109 Don Kipchaks are invaded and defeated by Rus Khyazes

1110 Kipchaks stone monuments spread in Dniepr basin, Crimea, Azov, Don, Itil, N Caucasus

1111 Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Khyazes.

1116 Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Khyazes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken.

1116 (1116-1236) End of Russo-Kipchak wars. Kipchaks ally with Rus Principalities and join in in Rus intercine wars. In 120 years Kipchaks participate in 16 Russo-Russo wars, with only 6 Russo-Kipchak invasions and 6 Kipchak-Russo invasions

1117 Kipchaks under Khan Otrok retreat to N Caucasus steppes. Kipchak Khan Syrchan remains in Don Steppes. Kipchaks under Khan Otrok on way to N Caucasus destroy Sarkel. Its inhabitants with Besenyos and Oguz Türks migrate to Rus principalities

1117 Kipchak Khan Bonyak and Rus Knyazes Vsevolod of Kiev and Andrey of Pereyaslavl sign peace treaty near Malutin

1118 Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder and participates in war with Seljuks. A number of Kipchaks settle in Georgia

1120 Rus Knyaz Yuri Dolgoruky defeats Bulgars under pretext that they poisoned his father-in-law, Kipchak Khan Aepak

1122 Rus defeats Berendeys, Oguses and Cumans. Cumans leave

1122 Kipchak Khan Bonyak defeats Besenyos at Battle of Eski Zagra. Cumans subsequently occupy their lands

1130 1130-1150 Kipchaks participate in intercene wars of Rus principalities.

1146 Foundation of Karakalpak (Black Caps - Russ. Chernii Klobuki) Union (comprised of remnants of defeated Türkic peoples), dependent on and largely loyal to Rus. First time Rus annals mention Wild Kipchaks (Russ. "Wild Polovetsy") and Brodnicks

1152 Kipchak lands are defined in Ipatievsk Chronicle and Chronicle of Igor. Itil, N Black Sea, Sula, Crimea (Suroj and Korsun (Kerch)), Tmutarakan (NW Fore-Caucusus)

1167 Kipchak Khan Bonyak (1090-1167) dies, Khan ? becomes Kipchak Khan(1167-1172)

1170 Rus Knyazes under the leadership of Mstislav Izyaslavich raid Dnestr Kipchaks

1171 Besenyos lose control of Moldova to Cumans (1171-1241)

1172 Kipchak Khan ? (1167-1172) dies, Khan Konchak becomes Khan (1172-1201)

1172 Kipchak Khan Konchak and the Rus Knyazes Rostislav and Gleb sign peace treaty near Pesochna. Bulgars repel attack of Mstislav, son of Andrey Bogolyubsky

1174 Kipchak Khans Konchak and Kobyak fail in raid on territory of Pereiaslavl Knyaz Igor

1175 Kipchaks consolidate into 2 confederated hordes, Dniepr and Don. Al Mansuri and An Nuvayri mention Burjogly and Toksoba confederations.

1179 First successful raid of Kipchak Khan Konchak to Pesulye

1180 Kipchaks aid Knyaz Igor and Olgovichi against Knyaz David in Smolensk and Ryurik. After the defeat of Igor, they flee with his troops. The battle took place near Chertoriye River

1184 Dniepr Kipchaks are again attacked and defeated near Ivan-Voyn, and Kievan Grand Knyaz Svyatoslav (not Igor) captures and kills Khan Kobyak. Kobyak is from line Toglyy/Izay/Osoluk/Kobyak (in Russ. sources patrimonic name Karepyevich, from Karep)

1184 Don Kipchak Khan Konchak raids Russ and is defeated. Army of Knyaz Vsevolod devastates some Bulgar areas

1185 A number of Kipchaks, in 10'sK, settle in Georgia in times of George III (1152-1184) and Quinn Tamara (1184-1214).

1185 (March) Russ Knyazes Ryurik and Svyatoslav defeat Kipchaks on Khorol River. Month later Igor launches his disastrous campaign against Kipchaks. Khan Konchak and Gzak retaliate successfully in Pereiaslavl region

1185 1185-1187 Cuman-descended Bulgarian "boyars" Peter and Asen revolt against Byzantine rule, with Bulgar, Wallachian and Cuman troops. Foundation of second Danube Bulgar state

1187 Great March of Rus knyazes against Dnestr Kipchaks, the final destination is "Blue Wood"

1193 Rus Knyazes - co-governors Svyatoslav and Rurik fail to arrange peace treaty with (Kipchak vassals?) Lukomors and Bureviches.

1195 1195- Kipchaks participate in intercine wars of Rus principalities.

1202 Rus Knyaz Rurik with Kipchak allies defeats Galitsky princedom

1202 Kipchak Khan Kotyan's reign (1202-1240) over territories in N. Pontic and Hungary

1203 Kipchak Cumans capture Kiev

1206 Death of Delhi Sultan Muhammad Guri. Kipchak viceroy gulam Kutb ad-Din Aibek (1206-1210) becomes first Sultam of new dynasty

1209 Novgorod Knyaz Mstislav allied with Cuman Khan Kotyan, recaptures Galich from Magyars

1219 Gengiz Khan grants Muyten Bey yarlik for Bashkir? Kipchak? Ulus from Yaik and Agizel (Belaya), tributary of Kama, to Irtish

1220 Combined Russo-Kipchak forces of Knyaz George II of Vladimir raids Itil Bolgars, capture Oshel and other cities along Kama. Bilyar city was saved by paying rich tribute

1221 King George IV's Georgian Royal Guards Cuman cavalry defeated by Mongols

1221 Dominicans send missionaries to Cumans

1222 Khan Kotyan Cumans, Bulgars, Khazars and Alans in first fight with Mongol-Tatars, accept promise not to be harmed as speakers of Tatar Kipchak dialect, withdraw, but are attacked and defeated. Alanian capital Magas (Meget) is seized

1223 War councel in Kiev: Kipchak Khan Kotyak, Galician Knyaz Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy (Brave), Kiev Knyaz Mstislav Romanovich, Chernigov Knyaz Mstislav Svyatoslavich, Volyn Knyaz Daniil, Kursk Knyaz Oleg, Smolensk Knyaz Vladimir, former Novgorod Knyaz Vsevolod

1223 Mongol-Tatars defeated important Khan Kotyan's Russo-Kipchak force on May 31, 1223, at battle of Kalka

1223 80K Russo-Kipchak force was defeated by 20K 3 tumen force of Subetai on June 16, 1223, at battle of Kalka

1223 Itil Bolgar Khan Gabdulla Chelbir collects 24K army, of 5K kursybays, 3K militia of Dair Tetush, 6K kazanchies, 10K Bashkorts. Staged at Kermek, NW of Mardan-Sember (present Simbirsk), on left bank of Itil. Subetai had 20K Tataro-Mongols, and 50K Türkmen and Kumans. Severe defeat of trapped Mongol army



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1227 Juchi dies, Batu becomes Ulus Juchi (Kipchak) Khan (1227-1255)

1227 Cuman Khan west of the Dneiper Bortz/Bortch (Türk. "debt") and 15,000 of his people baptized as Catholics in Moldavia and swear allegiance to Hungary

1228 First bishopric of Cumania, with seat at Milkov in Moldavia, established in Transylvania and King King Béla IV of Hungary assumed title “king of Cumania”

1235 Eastern Desht-I Kipchak from Altai to Idel are included in Tataro-Mongol Empire

1237 Batu Khan becomes ruler of Kipchak Kaganate (Ak Urdu) (Golden Horde).

1237 Invasion of Asses and Kipchaks in N.W. Caspian and N. Caucasus. Leading Kipchak warrior Bachman killed, Khan Kotyan retreat beyond Tanais. Batu starts encircling maneuver going through Burtases, Erzya Moksha, and Rus

1239 King Béla IV of Hungary granted asylum to Cumans and their prince Kotyan (BE "Kuthen"), who had earlier unsuccessfully tried organize Rus resistance to Mongols. Kotyan agreed to convert his people to Catholicism, and be loyal to Hungary

1240 Batu Khan controls Kipchak, Bolgar, Rus Principalities

1240 Kuthen, considered a dangerous alien, is murdered; Cumans left Hungary but resettled there by Béla IV in 1245

1241 Cumans lose control of Moldova to Mongols (1241-1286)

1241 Cumans exacted revenge upon Hungarians by deserting them in their greatest time of need. They fled to Balkans, ravaging as they went

1249 Establishment of Kipchak Türkic Mamluk dynasty in Egypt

1250 Kipchaks spoke a Türkic language whose most important surviving record is Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Latin, and Persian, compiled by Christian missionaries

1250 Presence in Egypt of Kipchak-speaking Mamluks stimulated compilation of Kipchak-Arabic dictionaries and grammars written in Egypt and Syria

1250 Béla IV's son, future Stephen V, married Cuman princess, and, under rule of their son (Ladislas IV [László]; 1272–90), Cuman influence in Hungarian affairs was great

1250 Cumans did not completely assimilated into Hungarian society for centuries

1255 Batu dies (1227-1255). Sartaq the Christian becomes Kipchak Khan (1255-1257), then Ulagchi the Child (1257-1257)

1257 Ulagchi the Child dies (1257-1257), Berke the Moslem becomes Kipchak Khan (1257-1266)

1261 First Orthodox bishopric established in Kipchak Kaganate Sarai as early as 1261 (D.Sinor, Mongols in the West)

1262 First war between Kipchak Kaganate and Il Khans.

1263 Kipchak Khanaate (Ak Urdu) carried on an extensive trade with Mediterranean peoples, particularly their allies in Mamluk Egypt and Genoese.

1266 Berke Moslem dies (1257-1266), Mangu Timur becomes Kipchak Khan (1266-1280)

1279 Kipchak (Cuman) George Terter I installed in Bulgaria (1280-1292)

1280 Mangu Timur dies, Tode Mangu the Moslem becomes Kipchak Khan (1280-1287)

1287 Tode Mangu Moslem dies, Tole Buqa becomes Kipchak Khan (1287-1290)

1290 Tole Buqa dies, Toqtagha becomes Kipchak Khan (1290-1312)

1298 Hungarian-Cuman force fights in Battle of Gollheim with army of Albrecht I of Habsburg

1300 Kipchaks settle in E. of Itil and in S. Urals

1300 Kipchaks settled from Itil to Lower Ilek rivers left modest earthen kurgans with rectangular burials facing East, with a hide or a mummy of harnessed and saddled horse

1300 Kipchaks settled E. of Lower Ilek river left stone kurgans with rectangular burials facing East, with a hide or a mummy of harnessed and saddled horse. Both groups have same ritual: men are equipped with birch lube quivers with cut arrows, knives and flints. Women are buried with bronze or silver pendants, ear rings, signet rings, scissors, bronze mirrors and elements of head dress (bokki in a shape of a birch lube tube)

1328 Pope John XXII instructs Hungarian bishops not to collect tithes from Cumans

1333 Casimir the Great (Kazimierz Wielki) (1333-1370) expands Poland on the border of Kipchak khanate into a major Central-European power, increasing her territory 2.5 times, bringing it's size up to 270,000 sq.kms.

1340 Tini Beg dies, Jani Beg I becomes Kipchak Khan (1341-1356)

1348 Pope Coloman VI charges Minorite friars to convert Cumans

1356 Jani Beg I dies, Berdi Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1356-1359 opposed by)

1357 Death of Jani Beg, last member of House of Juchi to rule over Kipchak Kaganate

1359 Berdi Beg dies, Qulpa becomes Kipchak Khan (1359-1360 and)

1360 Nauruz Beg dies, Hizr (of Ak Urdu - White Horde) becomes Kipchak Khan (1360-1361)

1360 Qulpa dies, Nauruz Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1360)

1361 Hizr (of Ak Urdu - White Horde) dies, Temur Hoja (of Ak Urdu) becomes Kipchak Khan (1361-1362)

1362 Temur Hoja (Ak Urdu) dies, Abdullah becomes Kipchak Khan (1362 d1370)

1369 Abdullah dies, Jani Beg II becomes Kipchak Khan (1369-1370)

1370 Jani Beg II dies, Mohammed Buluq-Khan becomes Kipchak Khan (1370 d)

1370 Mohammed Buluq-Khan dies, Tulun Beg-Khanum (fem) (Ak Urdu) becomes Kipchak Khan (1370-1373)

1373 Tulun Beg-Khanum (fem) (Ak Urdu) dies, Ai Beg (Ak Urdu) becomes Kipchak Khan (1373 d 1376)

1373 Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow repulsed Kipchak punitive invasion

1375 Ai Beg (Ak Urdu) dies, Hajji Cherkes (in Sarai) becomes Kipchak Khan (1375-1376)

1376 Hajji Cherkes (in Sarai) dies, Urus-Khan becomes Kipchak Khan (1376-1378)

1377 Khan of Ak Urdu Tokhtamysh assumes control of Kipchak Kaganate

1378 Urus-Khan dies, Arab Shaykh (restored)(in Sarai) becomes Kipchak Khan (1378-1379)

1379 Arab Shaykh (restored)(in Sarai) dies, rebellious Mamai claims Kipchak Khan throne (1379-1380)

1380 Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow and Rus princes, as vassals of Tokhtamish, fight and win a signal victory over Kipchak Horde under pretender general Mamai at Battle of Kulikovo in 1380

1380 Tokhtamish, son of a minor Tatar prince, won fight with Mamai and ascended throne of Kipchak Khaganate - Ak Urdu. Mamai dies, Tokhtamish becomes Kipchak Khan (1380-1397)

1395 Timurlan defeats Tokhtamysh. Türkish Emir Edigu takes over control of Kipchak Kaganate.

1398 Tokhtamish dies, Temur Qutlugh becomes Kipchak Khan (1398-1400)

1400 Temur Qutlugh dies, Shadi Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1400-1407)

1407 Shadi Beg dies, Pulad becomes Kipchak Khan (1407-1412)

1412 Pulad dies, Jalal Al-Din becomes Kipchak Khan (1412-1413)

1413 Jalal Al-Din dies, Karim Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1413-1414)

1414 Karim Berdi dies, Kebek becomes Kipchak Khan (1414-1417)

1417 Kebek dies, Jabbar Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1417-1419)

1419 Jabbar Berdi dies, Ulugh Mehmed becomes Kipchak Khan (1419-1420 d 1434)

1419 Death of Edigu. Beginning of civil war in Kipchak Kaganate

1420 Ulugh Mehmed dies, Devlat Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1420-1421)

1421 Devlat Berdi dies, Baraq becomes Kipchak Khan (1421-1428)

1423 Crimean Khaganate separates from Kipchak Khaganate under Khan Mengli Girei

1423 Baraq dies,Kuchuk Mehmed becomes Kipchak Khan (1423(36?)-1459)

1428 Kuchuk Mehmed dies, Ulugh Mehmed (restored) becomes Kipchak Khan (1428-1434)

1430 Kazan Khanate separates from Kipchak Khaganate.

1432 Kipchak Khan Ulugh Mehmed's envoy enthroned Vasili II on throne of Moscow instead of in Vladimir. This is last time that Tatar envoy participated in coronation of Grand Prince of Rus

1434 Ulugh Mehmed (restored) dies, Sayyid Ahmad I becomes Kipchak Khan (1434-1436)

1459 Sayyid Ahmad I dies, Mahmud becomes Kipchak Khan (1459-1466)

1466 Mahmud dies, Ahmad becomes Kipchak Khan (1466-1481)

1470 Struck last bilingual Kipchak-Rus coins

1481 Ahmad dies, Sayyid Ahmad II becomes Kipchak Khan (1481-1502)

1502 Destruction of Kipchak Kaganate capital Sarai.

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